Widespread or persistent violations of human rights by or on behalf of a de facto authority—typically a state—are considered crimes against humanity. Crimes against humanity, in contrast to war and crime, can refer to both broad practices and individual acts rather than having to take place during a time of war.  Although crimes against humanity apply to actions taken by or on behalf of authorities, they do not always need to be official policy, and only implicit agreement is needed. The Nuremberg trials saw the first accusation of crimes against humanity. humanity.